A General Theory of the Effects of Changes

Let us have three somethings to be examined. (The word “something” is to indicate that they can be anything.) Let their places in time be as shown in fig. 1. The change will take place from bottom upward in the figure.

As it can be seen, the two-sign one came off tahat with one sign, which is regarded as the basis, earlier than the three-sign one.

The comparisons made at the four (A”, „B”, „C”, „D”) chosen times give four different results as to the distances between them., as described below:
– „A” : both are zero;
– „B” : 2 has gained some distance, and 3 remains zero;
– „C”: both have gained some distance, and both 2a and 2b are at a farther distance than 3;
– „D”: both have gained some distance, 3, more than 2a, but less than 2b.

Thus, a comparison made at any given time will not tell anything as to when these somethings came separate from each other. To know the history of the individual somethings is only made possible by
– going along that something itself
– or by getting to know the interrelation describing the process of change except for such a case when it can be excluded some way or another that
– the changes in direction as shown in the figure
– and changes in the velocities of motion of the somethings
will take place.

By applying this theory for the animal kingdom merely on the basis of the knowledge of today’s state of affairs, it is not possible to establish
the time of the separation or
the history of the origin
of the different groups, either by a morphological or a DNA-based method of examination.

This statement is a
– method of examination
– and is not tied to the type of the something 1 that is, it can be applied for
– any method
– and any type of something.

Endre Simonyi