The classification of organisms or taxonomy in biology is not based on what is written in the first part. Similarities were sought and classification was made based on the degree of these similarities.
This principle is fundamentally flawed!
Imagine this principle applied to people!
People looking similar would be relatives! The more similar, the closer relatives. The difference between individual “scientific” views would be the nature of similarities. For example, if it were hair colour, then a brown-haired mother’s blonde daughter might not be her relative at all.
Whatever the similarity to be examined were, it would always yield an incorrect result. (A few examples: Intellectual and artistic talents are rarely inherited. Physical properties – height, body-mass index – can also differ considerably even in the case very close relatives.)
Based on fig. 1, a possibility to find real relationship is to “go back” in time through archaeological finds!
Another possibility would be to know in every consecutive generation the process that may cause a change, along with the effect of the change, and to follow these back in time.
It is, however, not possible today.
This is certainly true but it does not change the fact that real relationship can only be determined this way.